These settings are not new. Clergy preferences in leadership style in the 1990s remained virtually unchanged from the results of 1980-81 research published in Women of the Cloth by Jackson W. Carroll et al. Moreover, these preferences coincide with further studies of clergymen conducted by Edward Lehman and others. Lehman found that although clergymen somewhat more often emphasized strengthening the laity, clergy did not distinguish themselves from clergymen in their use of formal authority within the Church (Gender and Work, 1993). Our sample consists primarily of clergy who attended the seminary in the 1980s, where they were all exposed to a feminist subculture. In line with Lehman`s findings, the clergy in our sample – those who graduated after 1981 – prefer very democratic leadership. However, this only applies to women. Consistent with Lehman`s findings, it is somewhat less likely that recent graduate members of our sample will adopt highly democratic leadership than women. Everyone also agrees that clergymen are less interested in Community policy, power over others and interpreters of employment.
The women we spoke to were much more frequent than their male colleagues, who voluntarily have their perception that the leadership style of clergy differs from that usually used by clergymen. Moreover, all of our faith clusters show a fairly broad agreement on the nature of this difference in leadership: after yesterday`s peace agreement for Northern Ireland, Dr Robin Eames, the Primate of the Church of Ireland, said: „History will consider this day to be one of the most important in the history of Ireland.“ If we compare the knowledge and attitudes of lay leaders from seven major denominations, interviewed in the 1980-81 „Women of the Cloth“ study, with those of lay leaders of the same faiths in our 1993-1994 research, it is clear that in the 1990s there were many more women in pastoral service than in the 1990s. And these women are very much appreciated. Lay people in the 1990s are about 25 percent more likely than lay people in the 1980s in communities where other churches are served by ordained women. The laity, especially the laity, have greatly expanded their knowledge of ecclesiastical women and instead believe that women, both laity and ecclesiastics, occupy or have an influence comparable to the laity and ecclesiastics of their confession in their territory. Although each takes a different approach to service, clergymen are more relational than clergy and make more cooperative decisions rather than using a hierarchical or authoritarian approach. Article 178 of the Polish Criminal Code expressly prohibits calling a member of the clergy as a witness in order to reveal the information he has received during a confession.  Article 261 of the Polish Civil Code allows clergymen not to testify if this would disclose the information he received during a confession. The fact that these two institution-centered denominations were the last to ordain women and did so only in the 1970s indicates that ecclesiastical women in these denominations, especially female head pastors, serve under pressure to which other women are not exposed. . .